Write 8 pages with APA style on Forensic Material Identification Techniques, Spectroscopy. The fingerprint section is mandated to identify invisible or hidden fingerprints and carry out an examination of crime scenes and fingerprint exhibitions. The functions of this department of forensic science are to visit crime scenes, search for, enhance, collect and examine finger, palm and footprint for evidence and to make identifications via the comparison and recovering of latent prints and recognized offender prints (Skoog, 2007). In addition, this department and its officers present expert evidence at court. Whether working under document Examination, armory, photography, scene of crime, electronic crime laboratory or under environmental science and research, forensic officers operate analytical laboratories where they analyse samples related to biology (DNA), physical evidence such as glass, fibres and paint, illicit drugs, toxicology, breath/ blood alcohol and workplace drug testing among others (Skoog, 2007). This paper explores some of the numerous techniques that forensic officers in the police service apply in determining the elemental composition of the solid, liquid and gaseous materials in their hand, which could be related to a crime or a case before a court of law. The paper focuses on each technique in isolation, discussing how each works, its weaknesses and strengths and the nature and type of sample for which each technique is ideal. The techniques will then be studied holistically than a set of recommendations will be given in the form of a flow chart or table showing which technique(s) or variants recommended for liquid, solid and paste samples. It is also worth mentioning the fact that emphasis is placed on the most modern or newest technologies and instruments that aptly address the analytical situations that criminal justice officers, especially forensic officers, face in the execution of their duties. It is quite evident that instrumental methods have become the pillars of modern forensic identification and characterisation and analyses of materials. The current .instrumental methods in forensic identification and analysis not only relies on technologies but also on sound theories on the application of forensic techniques in the analysis, identification and characterisation of toxic and nontoxic biological and chemical substances (Skoog, 2007). .
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