solved: *My Turnitin score is too high. I need assistance on properly paraphrase and add citations.

Question Answered step-by-step *My Turnitin score is too high. I need assistance on properly paraphrase and add citations. Nurse to patient ratios: Concepts and Solutions The issue of nurse to patient ratio is a topic of discussion and with strong emphasis on analyzing the negative impact an improper ratio can have on patient care as well as the prevention and treatment theories and techniques used to combat negative aspects, ensure wellbeing of nurses, and afford the best possible care for patients. The idea of developing prevention and treatment plans is to avoid the negative impact of the nurse-to-patient ratio on patient care. It is important to review the importance of interprofessional collaboration on the nursing practice issue. The following will review the three aspects of the theory and how they apply to nursing practice problems, as well as the evidence-based solutions recommended for this problem.Interprofessional Collaboration Imogene King who believed in the importance of interpersonal system to care quality is much more valuable than those of the personal and social systems. The nursing process primarily happens in interpersonal systems. Interprofessional collaboration involves different professions in health care working together towards offering quality patient care. When different professions come together, there may be challenging and impacting issues. We need to improve strong communication systems to strengthen interprofessional collaboration. Communication is a very essential part of healthcare, it improves better understanding, sharing of ideas, patient information and delegation of duties. An effective communication system will improve all activities to improve patient care and avoid medical errors. On the other hand, better communication methods can improve working relationships, handover work during shifts and provide quality patient needs (Reeves et al.,2017). Maximizing mutual respect and improving trust is essential for better teamwork. In a healthcare environment, each team should be able to understand their roles and how they interact with others, be accountable for mistakes, and be able to work together towards improving patient care. Through defining individual roles and responsibilities, each team is better able to understand what is expected in order to increase trustand respect in achieving healthcare goals. Interprofessional cooperation brings together individuals from different health professions with different cultural backgrounds. The health care system should therefore work towards forming a common organization culture to unite all the professions to work together towards improving patient outcomes. On the other hand, the health care team should work on providing the necessary health resources to meet the needs of patients. This in turn will motivate health care workers who are united towards offering quality patient care (wei et al, 2020). Above all, nurses should take the role of leadership since they are able to understand the diverse needs of both patients and health care providers, and therefore will provide good guidance through democratic leadership towards uniting and improving Interprofessional collaboration (shakhman et al, 2020). Effective nurse and patient communication will help the nurse will understand the patients needs, which can be a majorfactor in giving the best quality of care possible. This can be difficult to achieve if the nurse is overwhelmed with patients due to an off balance nurse to patient ratio.   Nurses also need to be aware of intrapersonal stressors such physiological, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual, interpersonal stressors: being away from family or children, and extra-personal stressors: agitation or psychological pressure from family or spouse (Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017). These increased stressors can have an effect on a nurse performance both inter-personal, and also affect the quantity of care for the patients. These stressors are potential warnings, which can disrupt the system of balance. Defense mechanisms respond to the stressors to prevent them from reaching the central energy source. Caregivers task can be considered a stressor as well, or even the source of stress in the caregiving experience. Their unique perception of whether a certain task is difficult can make a difference in their experiences. In Neuman’s model, specified lines of defense are related to methods of coping that is used by the caregivers against stressors. Effective coping methods can prevent stressors from damaging the person’s defense lines and can enable protection of their basic structure. All of these factors can play a role if the nurse is stressed out. The care of the patient will suffer if the nurse doesn’t know how to cope with the stressors in their lives. Nurses must be vocal and open to talking about the factors hindering, or helping, care for their patients.Concept Outside of Nursing Maslow’s Theory of Human Motivation and Hierarchy of Basic Needs is a grand theory that views the complexity of human behavior, especially in relation to the motivation of behavior (Kearney-Nunnery 2020). In this theory, needs can be viewed as a pyramid, with the bottom being physiological, such as adequate oxygen, food, and water. Moving up the pyramid is safety, love, esteem, self-actualization, and self-esteem (Kearney-Nunnery 2020). We can use thistheory in relation to nursing shortages when we look at the realization that nurses are humans, and need to fulfill these basic needs to succeed. Sometimes, the simple needs are overlooked, such as lunch breaks, team morale, and also a sense of satisfaction that comes with completing tasks. Often times, nurses seek out alternative careers due to deficiencies in one or more of these areas.Nursing Concept A great theoretical foundation is Imogene King’s Conceptual System. King’s theory focuses on helping patients maintaining their health so they can function in their designated roles (Kearney-Nunnery, 2020). Furthermore, this theory focuses on identifying and defining 3 interacting systems; personal system, interpersonal system and social system, (Kearney-Nunnery, 2020). Also, within these 3 listed systems, King provides a further breakdown of how it effects each individual. Nursing is a process of action, reaction, interaction, and transaction. This theory is based on four main elements: health is attainted through appropriate nurse-patient relationships, both nurse and patient must have a mutual understanding about one another, goals and functions of nurse and patient need to be in sync with each other, and the nurse needs to use they know to establish relationship and set goals (Adib-Hajbaghery & Tahmoursei, 2018, p.142). With the increased shortages of nursing staff, and increased patient load, nurses are sometimes inhibited from properly doing the job of helping patients maintain their health. Shortages of nurses leads to the nurses being dissatisfied with their job, stressed, burned out, frequently absent from work, change of career, and the inability of practicing beneficence. In patients, this lack of proper nursing care can lead to readmission, failure to thrive, and increased mortality. Betty Neuman’s System Model is another good theoretical example. Neuman’s Systems Model that provides “a comprehensive holistic and system based approach to nursing that contains an element of flexibility” (Petiprin, 2020). Neuman describes three different types of prevention primary, secondary, and tertiary (Petiprin, 2020). In this model the wellness of the patient system is compared to the relation of any environmental stress, and the patients reaction to the stresses encountered. Caring for the patient as a whole is a primary focus of nursing. When nurses have increased patients, they can’t properly focus on the patient, as they are stretched thin due to the needs of the patients, and the procedures they need to follow to provide a standard of care. This issues can lead to the patient suffering because their needs are not being properly addressed, with also an increase of negative events occurring due to incorrect assessments. Nurses are sometimes left feeling ineffective, alone, and not apart of a teamwork environment(Ahmadi & Sadeghi, 2017).Nursing Metaparadigm Concepts A metaparadigm is a set of ideas, which provide the structure for a functioning discipline. In nursing, Jacqueline Fawcett has promoted the nursing metaparadigm consisting of four concepts: human beings, health, nursing, and environment (Kearney-Nunnery, 2020). Human beings can refer to the nurses themselves, as well as the patients in their care, the health aspect refers to the well-being of the person, nursing is the actions taken by the nurse thatpromotes better health for the patients, and environment refers to the surroundings, both mentally and physically, which has a major effect on how a person can feel (“Metaparadigm Concepts in Nursing,” 2020). Nurse to patient ratio is affected by the nursing metaparadigm in that if the nurse is unable to properly maintain the workload of too many patients, the wellbeing of the human nurse can suffer which leads to decreased care for the patients. If the four concepts of nursing metaparadigm are equally met, it can lead to positive outcomes for the nurse and patients.Evidence-Based Recommended Solutions Evidence-Based practice, also known as EPB, is frequently used in many aspects ofhealthcare and is very important in nursing. An appropriate nurse to patient ratio is necessary to make staff feel comfortable in their environment. It also helps nurses to maintain a professional bearing while providing care. If we look at Imogene King’s theory, we can see the importance of managing stresses while functioning interpersonally. King’s definition of stress is one of a “dynamic state” where individuals interact with their environment (Kearney-Nunnery, 2020, p.37). If nurses are equipped with resources and appropriate staffing ratios, they are better able tohandle stresses that come with the job, which in turn helps to provide a higher standard of carefor the patients. “When providing staff with the appropriate personnel, nurses feel as though they are equally sharing in the workload and patients receive a higher level of care” (Comeaux and Bumpus, 2019). Betty Neuman’s Systems Model focuses on “the wellness of the client system in relation to environmental stress and reactions to stress’ (Kearney- Nunnery, 2020, p.40). Neuman’stheory implements “prevention as intervention” modality (Kearney- Nunnery, 2020, p.41).Within the prevention as intervention modality, the main idea is that one should promote stability and prevent stressors while using positive coping methods as a primary prevention, (Kearney- Nunnery, 2020). An example one can use as a primary prevention could be that in many nursing units they are beginning to implement acuity-based staffing to help balance out staff satisfaction as well as patient care and quality, (Comeaux and Bumpus 2019). Neuman’s intervention modality then goes on to address the secondary prevention which entails how to deal with stressors once they occur, (Kearney- Nunnery, 2020). It is suggested that facilities could offer counseling and support groups to help nurses identify and cope with the stresses coming from heavy workloads and short staffing. Another point of the intervention modality involvesestablishing and maintaining the high levels of wellness among the staff, (Kearney-Nunnery, 2020). In this aspect of prevention to intervention, facilities are encouraged to evaluate patient outcomes and staffing satisfaction while making necessary adjustments.  ReferencesAdib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen, and Mahsa Tahmouresi. “Nurse-patient relationship based on the imogene king’s theory of goal attainment.” Nursing and Midwifery Studies, vol. 7, no. 3, 2018, p. 141., https://doi:10.4103/2322-1488.235636Ahmadi, Z., & Sadeghi, T. (2017). Application of the Betty Neuman systems model in the nursing care of patients/clients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis journal – experimental, translational and clinical, 3(3), 2055217317726798., Y., Bumpus, S. (2019). Safe staffing: optimal nurse staffing is more than just a number. Med-surg matters, 28(5): 1-3. (3p). Kearney-Nunnery, R. (2020). Advancing your career: Concepts of professional nursing (7th ed.). FA Davis.Petiprin, A. (2020). Imogene King-Nursing Theorist. Nursing Theory., A. (2020). Neuman’s systems model. Nursing Theory. Reeves, S., Pelone, F., Harrison, R., Goldman, J., & Zwarenstein, M. (2017). Interprofessionalcollaboration to improve professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6).Shakhman, L. M., Al Omari, O., Arulappan, J., & Wynaden, D. (2020). Interprofessionaleducation and collaboration: strategies for implementation. Oman Medical Journal, 35(4), e160.Wei, H., Corbett, R. W., Ray, J., & Wei, T. L. (2020). A culture of caring: the essence of healthcare interprofessional collaboration. Journal of interprofessional care, 34(3), 324-331.  Health Science Science Nursing NUR 300 Share QuestionEmailCopy link Comments (0)

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